Colombia usually classifies its geography into five natural regions

Colombia usually classifies its geography into five natural regions, from the Andes mountain range, a region shared with Ecuador, Venezuela; the Pacific Ocean coastal region shared with Panama and Ecuador; the Caribbean Sea coastal region, shared with Venezuela and Panama; the Llanos (plains), shared with Venezuela; to the Amazon Rainforest region shared with Venezuela, Brazil, Peru and Ecuador. Colombia is the only South American country which borders both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

Despite this The World Factbook makes no difference between Amazon region of Colombia (predominantly jungle) and the Orinoquia region of Colombia (predominantly plains). The World Factbook considers most appropriate to divide the country into four geographic regions: the Andean highlands, consisting of the three Andean ranges and intervening valley lowlands; the Caribbean lowlands coastal region; the Pacific lowlands coastal region, separated from the Caribbean lowlands by swamps at the base of the Isthmus of Panama; and eastern Colombia, the great plain that lies to the east of the Andes Mountains.




The chief western mountain range, the Cordillera Occidental, is a moderately high range with peaks reaching up to about 15,000 ft (4,572 m) (4,670 m). The Cauca River Valley, an important agricultural region with several large cities on its borders, separates the Cordillera Occidental from the massive Cordillera Central. Several snow-clad volcanoes in the Cordillera Central have summits that rise above 17,000 ft (5,182 m). The valley of the slow-flowing and muddy Magdalena River, a major transportation artery, separates the Cordillera Central from the main eastern range, the Cordillera Oriental. The peaks of the Cordillera Oriental are moderately high. This range differs from Colombia’s other mountain ranges in that it contains several large basins. In the east, the sparsely populated, flat to gently rolling eastern lowlands called llanos cover almost 60 percent of the country’s total land area.

This cross section of the republic does not include two of Colombia’s regions: the Caribbean coastal lowlands and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, both in the northern part of the country. The lowlands in the west are mostly swampy; the reed-filled marshes of the area are called ciénagas by the people of Colombia. The Guajira Peninsula in the east is semiarid. The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta is a spectacular triangular snowcapped block of rock that towers over the eastern part of this lowland. Here can be found the highest peak of the country named Pico Cristobal Colon (5775 m).


Andean Region of Colombia

Andean Region of Colombia Republic of Colombia – South America


Near the Ecuadorian frontier, the Andes Mountains divide into three distinct, roughly parallel chains, called cordilleras, that extend northeastward almost to the Caribbean Sea. Altitudes reach more than 18,700 ft (5,700 m), and mountain peaks are permanently covered with snow.

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Caribbean Natural Region, Colombia

Caribbean region of Colombia Republic of Colombia – South America


The Caribbean lowlands consist of all of Colombia north of an imaginary line extending northeastward from the Golfo de Urabá to the Venezuelan frontier at the northern extremity of the Cordillera Oriental. The semiarid Guajira Peninsula and Guajira-Barranquilla xeric scrub, in the extreme north, bear little resemblance to the rest of the region.

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Pacific Region of Colombia

Pacific Region of Colombia Republic of Colombia – South America





The western third of the country is the most geographically complex. Starting at the shore of the Pacific Ocean in the west and moving eastward at a latitude of 5 degrees north, a diverse sequence of features is encountered. In the extreme west are the very narrow and discontinuous Pacific coastal lowlands…

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Amazon region of Colombia

Amazon region of Colombia Republic of Colombia – South America


Many of the numerous large rivers of eastern Colombia are navigable. The Río Guaviare and the streams to its north flow eastward and drain into the basin of the Río Orinoco, river that crosses into Venezuela and flows into the Atlantic Ocean…

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Orinoquía Region of Colombia

Orinoquía Region of Colombia Republic of Colombia – South America


Orinoquía Region of Colombia is unbroken by highlands except in Meta Department, where the Serranía de la Macarena, an out lier of the Andes has unique vegetation and wildlife believed to be reminiscent of those that once existed throughout the Andes…

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Colombia Travel Guide - Tourism in Colombia



travel_peru_icon_tourism General Information About Colombia: National symbols of ColombiaColombia: living historyGeography of ColombiaEconomy of ColombiaLanguages of Colombia

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tourist_guide_peru_travel Travel Guide of Colombia: Colombia Travel Guide – AmazonasAntioquiaAraucaAtlánticoBolivarBoyacáCaldasCaquetáCasanareCaucaCesarChocóCórdobaCundinamarcaGuaníaGuaviareHuilaLa GuajiraMagdalenaMetaNariñoNorte de SantanderPutumayoQuindioRisaraldaSan Andrés y ProvidenciaSantanderSucreTolimaValle del CaucaVaupésVichada